Factory Bluetooth Retrofit
- Model & Year: 95-01 7-Series, U.S.
- Expertise: Intermediate
- Date: January 29, 2017
- Updated: December 16, 2020
- Time Estimate: 4-8 hours
- Basic hand tools
- NavCoder software (optional)
- BMW Bluetooth TCU: p/n varies, price (used): $100 - $150.
- DB25-to-54-pin Adaptor: p/n 84-12-0-308-375, NLA.
- BMW Bluetooth Antenna: p/n 84-50-6-928-461, price: $26 (list).
- FAKRA B (or Z) Female-Female Cable (BT antenna): gauge RG174, length 4ft, price: $8-$30.
Replacing the useless stock phone system in your BMW with a factory, hands-free "Bluetooth" system is a fantastic way to modernize your car, gain practical benefits, and fully utilize your onboard electronics.
Aftermarket BT devices (such as Grom and MediaBridge) require your radio to be continuously on and in CD mode in order to function. But a factory BT system operates independently, in the background and always at the ready. In addition, the CD changer line remains open. Now you can finally use all your car's electronics including the built-in microphone and steering wheel controls, plus view extensive phone information - including your contact list - on your nav screen or MID display. What could be better?!
There are two different ways to achieve this:
- ULF (Universal Hands-Free): Compatible with most BMW's regardless of installed electronics and model year; Requires phone pairing button, which is included with optional "eject box" phone cradles (in center armrest) that connect to roof antenna and charge your phone; However, ULF's are expensive and hard to find.
- TCU (Telephone Control Unit): Partially compatible with E38's thru 08/00 (see limitation for nav voice control below) but fully compatible after that; No pairing button (pair within two minutes of starting your car); Phone cradles optional; Cheaper and more numerous than ULF's.
Considering cost and availability, most people choose to install a TCU. While the good folks at BimmerNav sold TCU kits for over $900, a TCU retrofit - as described here - can cost under $200. For phone cradle installation, see "Universal Eject Box" below.
BMW made several different ULF's and TCU's over the years. Compatible TCU's were made starting in late 2004, with the most recent being p/n 84-10-9-195-455 (from 3/08 and still available from BMW). For a summary, see BMW TCU and ULF Part Numbers.
There are some limitations:
- Compatible ULF's and TCU's are made for voice communications, not music streaming. Only the latest TCU's offer streaming, but they're not compatible with the E38 7-series. However, there are workarounds:
- Install an aux-input in place of the CD changer, for phone-based music. (This method avoids A2DP compression losses from streaming music.)
- Install a Grom or BlueBus exclusively for wireless streaming. (RE: Grom: the factory Bluetooth system mutes radio audio during a call, and should thereby take priority. RE: BlueBus: although telephone functions are included, contact list pairing and supporting Nav/MID screens are not yet operational.)
- For cars with navigation: swap in a "New Generation" radio with audio streaming dongle.
- Navigation voice control will be lost for E38's built thru 08/00 unless a ULF is installed. From 09/00, voice control can be shared with navigation after simple configuration with NavCoder software. See Using NavCoder for instructions. Since onboard nav is mostly obsolete, this point is likely irrelevant.
- If your BMW is not equipped with DSP sound, you will need a supplemental amplifier in order to obtain suitable volume from your phone. See Factory Bluetooth Retrofit - Supplement. There are also similar instructions on BimmerNav.
The information here should be applicable to several BMW models that were pre-wired for phone from the late '90's-on.
Used TCU's are commonly available on eBay. Beware some sellers claim "Bluetooth" when in fact the TCU is an older, non-BT unit. Confirm Bluetooth by the label:
Look for the Bluetooth logo (left center) and "PK" (Pass Key) code. This code is required to pair your phone. If this label is missing or illegible, do NOT buy it! The two peel-off labels will most likely be missing. This is OK.
Verify "BMW....IBUS", as only i-bus units are compatible with the E38 7-series (not MOST-bus!). The production date (above: January 13, 2007) will relate to the software and hardware version ("SW" and "HW", respectively). Look for late production dates to obtain the newest technology.
Cable terminals on the TCU are color-coded FAKRA types. But factory connection cables are discontinued from BMW. Not to worry: cables are generic parts. There are several aftermarket cable vendors on eBay, and custom-spec cables are sold by vCableMart.
To connect the Bluetooth antenna to the TCU, use a FAKRA female-female B-type (color: white) or universal Z-type (color: aqua) with 4ft minimum length, in cable size RG174. If other FAKRA types are used, they will not fit the keyed ends of the TCU terminal:
Universal Eject Box
To charge your phone while boosting its signal thru the roof antenna, BMW offers a universal "eject box" (phone cradle) that installs in the center armrest. This is the most sophisticated way to integrate a phone into your car. See Phone Charging & Signal Boosting.
Mounting the BT Antenna
The perfect location for the BT antenna is inside the left (driver-side) C-pillar, just below the passenger courtesy light. Running the FAKRA cable inside the trunk pass-thru is surprisingly easy compared to some cars. Unfortunately, removing trim pieces for access will result in broken fasteners. The question is how many. Follow my instructions to minimize the damage.
Mounting the TCU
Unlike the ULF, a factory trunk mounting bracket is unavailable for a Bluetooth TCU in an E38 7-series. For those interested in a clean install (like me), a random tie-wrap solution is unacceptable. An adaptor board can be made from plywood, and mounted on either the outer "video" bracket or in place of the CD changer (if not used). See Bluetooth TCU Installation below for details.
Note the Bluetooth TCU is a large device. It's too big to fit in place of the old TCU. If mounted as suggested, it must sit as low as possible on the bracket. If mounted on the video bracket, the TCU still contacts the taillight access door. But leaving this door ajar isn't an issue, since it's not visible after closing the larger nav access door.
1) Start by removing the nav computer (if applicable). Allow computer's red light to extinguish BEFORE proceeding. Insert radio removal tools (or coat hangars) into slots to release retainers. Then, grasp black nav trim and pull firmly:
Once free, disconnect the two plugs and antenna wire. Set aside. Then, remove the black plastic trim surrounding the bracket's opening.
2) Release the two black plastic trim screws just right of both the nav and CD changer. Then, release the 1/4 turn fastener securing the taillight access door (left of nav opening). Now, remove left rear side trim by pulling out and up.
3) Pull out upper rivet on forward trim. Then, pull trim down to gain access to trunk wiring pass-thru (images above).
4) Moving on to C-pillar trim, lever out -- from the top -- the left passenger courtesy light and unplug. (Levering from the front will break the light's retainer clips. Ask me how I know.)
5) Release the three (3) now-visible trim retaining screws using an 8mm nut driver. See image below. Remove trim carefully by pulling out and up, in rocking motion. Afterwards, the trim will likely suffer from indentations in the (deteriorating) foam, left behind after handling. This is unavoidable. (It may be time to replace your headliner and pillar cover fabric.)
6) Survey your installed equipment. Remove your old TCU and associated phone parts from both the trunk and center armrest (if any). Install a blank center tray to replace any existing eject box, or install a universal eject box (see Phone Charging & Signal Boosting).
Your old TCU is likely behind the brass-color video bracket. Remove the three 8mm screws to release bracket, as shown in image above left (red arrows). Unplug old TCU and discard. (Don't bother listing it on eBay. It's worthless.) Newer cars may have TCU mounted in front, directly on video bracket, as in image below.
For late-build models (from 9/00), note also the SES voice module in image above. This module will handle voice control of both Bluetooth TCU and navigation (after NavCoder programming of TCU). Cars without SES (thru 8/00) will lose voice control for navigation after Bluetooth TCU installation unless a ULF is installed.
7) For cars build before 9/00 (which have no SES module), it will be necessary to jumper pins 11 and 14 in the black phone plug located under the center armrest. This sends phone audio to the front speakers. See image below. Pinout numbers are stamped on the connector.
Additionally, open the DB25 plug (in trunk) and verify pin 22 is wired. If not, it will be necessary to jumper an i-bus wire into pin 22. The i-bus signal wire can be sourced/spliced from pin 3 of the CD changer power plug (also in trunk). See: Factory Bluetooth Retrofit - Supplement.
8) For cars built from 9/00 that did not have an SES module pre-installed (or had SES removed), verify the blue SES connector has a white jumper plug connected (p/n 84-11-0-018-038), as seen in image below. Also, in this case, it's necessary to jumper pins 11 and 14 as shown in step 7 above.
NOTE: Installing an SES module should enable voice control of both nav and phone (and "notepad" voice memos) all without jumpering pins 11/14 in the armrest plug. By now however, most existing SES modules have failed and don't seem as durable as TCU's. There is an updated SES module (84-41-6-915-049) available new for $800. Cars that were pre-wired for SES should have a "talking head" icon instead of a telephone icon printed on the left steering wheel button pad.
Bluetooth TCU Installation
9) Plug adaptor harness into DB25 connection from old TCU. Then return video bracket and secure with screws. (Your Bluetooth TCU will not fit back there.)
For TCU video bracket installation: route 54-pin connector up through cut-out in bracket floor (see image above left). For CD bracket installation: route 54-pin connector underneath CD area.
10) Mount TCU and connect 54-pin adaptor. One mounting option is to tie-wrap it to the video bracket. A better solution is a plywood mounting board which attaches to either the video bracket or CD changer bracket. See image above right and sidebar below.
Building a TCU Mounting Board
Using thick 5/8" plywood or similar, cut a piece 5" x 11.5". Round off the upper corners to prevent cuts & bruises when reaching in to change a rear light bulb. Spray-on flat black paint for a finished look.
For video bracket: with board resting on bottom of bracket, mark the bracket attachment point in upper right corner. Drill a hole for a screw/clip or nut/bolt combo and countersink it using a 3/4" bit. (TCU will rest over this area.) For CD bracket: remove bracket, mark and drill two pilot holes in board at lower attachment points, to receive two screws (see image below right).
On a workbench, place TCU at the top of board and mark the four TCU screw locations. Drill four pilot holes sized for short, thick screws.
11) Insert coat hanger wire (or similar) in trunk pass-thru grommet, up into C-pillar area. Tape the BT FAKRA cable to the wire and pull it back through into trunk.
12) Route BT FAKRA cable safely behind trunk electronics and connect to white-coded terminal of mounted TCU.
13) Connect other end of BT FAKRA cable to its antenna. Then, mount BT antenna just above white AM/FM amplifier by utilizing the T25 screw holding black plastic protective trim inside C-pillar. See image below:
14) Done! Before replacing trim, test your installation: Temporarily re-connect nav computer (if applicable). Switch ignition key to accessory and attempt to pair your phone (within two minutes) using the Pass Key (PK) printed on your TCU label. Once successful, take optional final steps using NavCoder software as below:
- E38's thru 08/00 (without nav or SES): Confirm voice recognition ("VR") is enabled (most TCU's come this way). Set emergency call number (if desired).
- E38's from 09/00 (with nav): Disable voice recognition (switch to SES, if installed). Set emergency call number (if desired).
15) Once satisfied, replace trim in reverse order. Finally note:
- BMW Bluetooth User Manual - for ULF installations, but mostly applicable.
- BMW Voice Control User Manual - make use of the separate voice-activated phonebook!
- Bluetooth Telephone Menus - my supplement for cars with navigation.
- Microphone, p/n 84 31 6 938 762 - new, noise canceling voice mic (optional).
Now place a Bluetooth call to celebrate!
New Mic '762: I do not recommend this mic over stock simply because its noise-cancelling features cause audio cut-out upon low signal levels. This results in a completely silent "lost-signal" sound for the caller during conversational pauses, which leads to questions "...you still there?". To be heard better during a call, lean in towards the mic.
Audio/Volume with SES: For cars with SES modules, there are two different ways to control in-call volume: 1) phone, 2) system. System volume is only accessible by voice command, but not during a call. It has only three pre-sets: low, medium, high. Setting system volume also sets the incoming call alert tone. A "high" tone can be quite startling when receiving a call. Furthermore, adjusting radio volume during a call has no affect. This leaves phone volume as the only effective volume control when in-call. To offset road noise, tighten the Speed Dependent Volume steps (SDV) when coding your TCU. See my NavCoder section for details.
Update (11/17): Since installing this TCU (software version 29, hardware 50) in my E38 last January, I have encountered occassional phonebook pairing problems and slow-to-pair behavior with my old Andriod phone. Address book pairing is a known problem with some older TCU's.
Update (10/18): After almost 2 years of use, I had to replace my previous TCU after it suddenly stopped working (locked-up audio system and froze nav screen). The newer unit (software version 37, hardware 50) provides noticable improvements. Phone and address book pairing are immediate, and nav screens respond quickly. So far, I'm very pleased. I now recommend SW/HW versions above 29/50 (see your TCU label).